Practical Living skills.

Curriculum in education is a very controversial matter and with the recent introduction of the new Junior Certificate programme. Kevin Williams and Elaine McDonald cover a wide range of issues dealing with Curriculum inquiry in Ireland and raise valid points and


Pedagogy and Curriculum:

Can education ever have a system where one suit fits all? It is safe to say no as we all have different learning capabilities. An argument could be made that any type of education is better than none but surely we need to encourage diversity and not solely gear students toward the jobs in growing society but of course to ensure they are provided with as much choice as possible. Motivation is a prime concern for pupils in schools but


The LCA programme analysis is without a doubt the most intriguing section for me personally. Why? I currently teach LCA and it is, in theory, without a shadow of a doubt perfect for students who would not suffice and get what they need through the general leaving certificate programme. The main reason I reckon it fails in addition to what MacDonald and Williams states is because of low numbers. LCA is evidently for the weaker students and in many schools, especially DEIS, weak students are sometimes too the students with the worst behaviour records and therefore are sent to LCA so they won’t disrupt the general leaving cert classes.

Connecting the Curriculum with Practical Learning

It is vital that subjects in school are taught in relation to students own original knowledge and understandings. Would advancing LCA solve the problems that have come with it? It may increase the numbers of pupils for the course and therefore allow schools to place more emphasis on subject variety for the pupils and would allow students to further explore their interested area without the concern of lack of work. I would undoubtedly agree with the idea of advancing LCA, simply because the lack of work and course material to cover in subjects. The aim of the LCA programme is ‘to prepare students for the transition from the world of education to that of adult and working life including further education.’


In response to the suggestions in particular regarding the focus of guidance counsellors, I think there is still a great deal done by counselors to encourage the appropriate students for LCA. I cannot base my opinion off one school however I can say that the improvement of LCA does not boil down to the school but the curriculum overall. Many schools that do hope to treat LCA appropriately . A workload that parallels the general leaving certificate but differs in marking schemes and subjects. Often students who are weak sometimes also tend to be the worst for discipline, the main issue for discipline is a lack of work for pupils. Broader subject choices is definitely something that would encourage LCA numbers. The text argues some subjects are not gender neutral but many schools who do have LCA do not have access to construction workshops or art classrooms so it comes down.


It is currently maybe seen that LCA limits the careers in which pupil can per


For the Presentation:

Practical abilities are just as important

What programme would connect pupils to the outside world. The LCVP programme certainly encourages such practical skills, gearing pupils towards employability for when they are to leave school and pursue their goals.  

The LCA programme also is relative to such ideas but has been viewed under any different lights as a result of the types of students that it attracts.

Originally created as a supplement leaving certificate, provided for the weaker students academically, the LCA course has instead been almost tarnished for the reason that many schools categorised it as a the course for the more uncooperative students with discipline issues over the students who properly do LCA.

On top of that there is a lack of flexibility in the programme for students and subject choices. Most likely because there is a low number in the programme

I chose this section as it is relative to the new junior cert, which focuses on how to promote practical skills such as communication and information management, all relative for he outside world.



  • Williams and McNamara explained in 1985 that there was not a significant amount of research and development on improving the school curriculum to enhance practical living skills.
  • LCA was introduced


Financing is of course a majo


Age of Exploration

This is a series of definitions for the navigation for the Age of Exploration section.

Mr. Courtney                                                                                                                                                   4/9/2014

Age of Exploration

Advances in Travel

  • Maps
  • At the beginning of the fifteenth century, cartographers (people who drew maps) produced more detailed maps of Europe and the known world.
  • The Portuguese used maps called portolan (which means harbour finding) maps which were very detailed about the coastline.
  • Navigation
  • Sailors used compasses to show the direction in which they were sailing.
  • Sailors began to work out their latitude (their distance north or south of the equator) using instruments called quadrants and astrolabes. Both instruments measured the height of the sun or the north star above the horizon.
  • The speed of a ship was measured using the log and line. A sailor threw a piece of wood (log) into the sea from the back of the boat. This was attached to a reel of knotted rope (line). The amount of rope that was pulled by the wood in one minute was then measured.
  • Life on the ship
  • Life at sea was tough. Ships could end up hundreds of miles off course, especially in seas that had never been mapped. Shipwrecks due to storms or crashing into rocks were common. Biscuits called hardtack were commonly eaten. Other food sailors ate included cheese, onions, dried beans, and salted fish or recently caught fish.
  • This poor diet meant that the crews regularly suffered from diseases such as typhoid (from bad water) and scurvy (from a lack of vitamin C).
  • Sailors often found themselves attacked by hostile natives.

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